Damage To Your Kidneys
Your kidneys are responsible for filtering and excreting excess fluid and waste from your blood — processes that are highly dependent on the smooth operation of your blood vessels. High blood pressure can injure both the blood vessels in and leading to your kidneys, causing several types of kidney disease (nephropathy). Having diabetes in addition to high blood pressure can worsen the damage.
- Kidney failure. Hypertension is one of the most common causes of kidney (renal) failure. That's because it can damage both the large arteries leading to your kidneys and the tiny blood vessels (glomeruli) within the kidneys. Damage to either disrupts the ability of your kidneys to filter waste products from your blood. As a result, dangerous levels of fluid and waste can accumulate. You might ultimately require dialysis or kidney transplantation.
- Glomerulosclerosis. Glomerulosclerosis (glo-mer-u-lo-skluh-RO-sis)) is a type of kidney damage caused by scarring of the glomeruli (glo-MER-u-li). The glomeruli are tiny blood vessels within your kidneys that filter fluid, waste and other substances from your blood. Glomerulosclerosis can leave your kidneys unable to filter waste effectively, ultimately leading to kidney failure.
- Kidney aneurysm. An aneurysm is a bulge in the wall of a blood vessel. When it occurs in an artery leading to the kidney, it's known as a kidney aneurysm. One potential cause is atherosclerosis, which weakens and damages the artery wall. Over time, the excessive pressure of blood coursing through a weakened artery can cause a section to enlarge and form a bulge — the aneurysm. Aneurysms can rupture and cause life-threatening internal bleeding.